THE NEW INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENT
Although some municipal palaces were built as early as the Municipal Palace of Tlaxcala (c. 1539 A.D.), the development of an institutional architecture that was not ecclesiastical began to flourish in the late 18th and early 19th centuries A.D.. Customs houses, hospitals, prisons, treasuries, and post offices were built at the initiative of the military engineers and architects of the Neoclassical movement. One of the most refined examples of this new building type, with its symmetrical plan organised around courtyards, is the Casa de Moneda (Royal Mint; c. 1780–99 A.D.) in Santiago, Chile, by Joaquín Toesca y Ricci. The formation of the new Viceroyalties coincided with the construction of the cabildo, or city hall (1783–85 A.D.), in Montevideo, Uruguay, designed by Tomás Toribio. The Neoclassical academic architecture of the cabildo applies the language of Renaissance architecture, columns, arches, friezes, to large-scale buildings adjusted to accommodate new typologies and freed from a proportional system, lending a new form to the institutions of government.
ARCHITECTURE OF THE NEW INDEPENDENT REPUBLICS
From 1810–1870 A.D. The domination of Spain by Napoleon accelerated a period of revolution from about 1810 A.D. to 1870 A.D.. By the mid-19th century A.D., most of Latin America was independent of Spain, which produced a reaction against 300 years of Spanish rule and the pervasive Baroque architecture it had popularised. Instead, the new republics looked toward France and Italy for the transformation of the colonial city into a modern, cosmopolitan one. New institutions of the republic were built, using the Neoclassical model, and the cities expanded outside the colonial grid, using the French model of the tree-lined boulevard. Important new public buildings such as customs offices, post offices, consulates, royal colleges, bullrings, theatres, and markets were built in the Beaux-Arts (or Second Empire) Neoclassical style. The influence of Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann’s urban design in Paris dominated the growth of Latin American capitals in the 19th century A.D.. Urban renewal was also part of a more ambitious political movement intended to modernise the social structures in countries such as Argentina, Chile, Brazil, and Mexico.
These countries had newly diversified export economies that participated in international markets. Capital investment from France and England helped these economies expand rapidly. The Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City is said to be the first example of a Parisian boulevard in the New World. By the 1880s A.D. this form of urban renewal had been realised in Palermo Park and the Avenida de Mayo in Buenos Aires, the Paseo del Prado and the Avenida Agraciada in Montevideo, Forestal Park and Santa Lucia Hill in Santiago, and the Guzman Blanco Boulevard and Paseo El Calvario in Caracas.
In Mexico Lorenzo de la Hidalga, who graduated from the Academy of San Fernando in Madrid, continued the Neoclassical tradition with his Santa Anna Theatre of 1844 A.D. (with 3,000 seats), his remodeling of the Plaza Mayor (1843 A.D.), his Penitentiary of Leon (1850s A.D.), and his Plaza de Toros (1850s A.D.), all in Mexico City. These Neoclassical buildings were situated within the colonial grid, and the city itself did not change much during this period.
In Havana, the principles of the Greek Revival (which hark back not to the Renaissance or even to Roman adaptations but to the Greek architecture of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C.) expressed themselves in El Templete (1827 A.D.), a small chapel by Antonio María de la Torre. In Colombia, the construction of the new building for the Capitol (c. 1847–1926) in Bogotá by the Danish architect Thomas (Tomás) Reed is one of the finest examples of this period. It is an austere building faced in a quarry stone, providing space for all the institutions of the state, including the congress, the supreme court, and the executive branch.
In Peru, the colonial city of Arequipa was rebuilt after the earthquake of 1784 A.D.. The new houses, although very similar in plan to the traditional colonial houses, displayed facades that exhibited a new Neoclassical vocabulary. The new cathedral of Arequipa (the mid-1800s), by Lucas Poblete, incorporated the triumphal arch motif into its facade. In Lima, the Juan Ruiz Dávila Hospital (1848 A.D.), built for Lima’s new merchant class, is an elegant composition of pavilions that are united by lightweight wooden bridges around a series of courtyards.
Among the new institutions built in Bolivia were José Núñez del Prado’s Municipal Theatre (1834–45 A.D.) and his Government Palace (1845–52 A.D.). In Chile, the Santiago School of Architecture was founded in 1849 A.D. by the Frenchman François Brunet de Baines. In both the school’s pedagogy and its architecture, Brunet introduced to Santiago the influence of the French Beaux-Arts eclectic historicism. He then began to work for the government and designed the new Municipal Theatre (1853 A.D.) in Santiago. In Uruguay, the new Solis Theatre (1841–56 A.D.) in Montevideo, by Carlos Zucchi, was based on a horseshoe-shaped plan similar to that of La Scala in Milan.
In Buenos Aires, the influence of the French and the English helped fuel anti-colonial tendencies, and immigrant architects from France—including Pierre Benoit, Prosper Catelin, Charles Enrique Pellegrini, and José Pons—implemented new cultural policies. Englishmen James Bevans and Charles Rann also went to the New World, along with the Italians Carlos Zucchi and Paolo Caccianiga. These architects all were essential in creating a new cosmopolitan city in the image of Paris. Catelin designed the new facade of the Buenos Aires cathedral (1822 A.D.) in a Neoclassical variation on the facade of the Parthenon. These architects worked for the government, building new markets, prisons, hospitals, churches, cemeteries, and urban boulevards.
In Brazil the work of the French architect A.-H.-V. Grand Jean de Montigny dominated the first half of the 19th century. In Rio de Janeiro he designed the new Academy of Fine Arts (1826) as well as the Municipal Market (mid-1800s A.D.) and the Plaza of Commerce (1820 A.D.). These works are characterised by the restrained use of Neoclassical elements. He was responsible for a great many residences in Buenos Aires as well as several country haciendas.
ACADEMIC ARCHITECTURE, C. 1870–1914
By the end of the 19th century A.D., most Latin American capitals could be said to be speaking Spanish (or Portuguese) but thinking in French—such was the dominance of all things French on the emerging cosmopolitan culture. The government provided the most important commissions, which were intended to consolidate this period of rapid economic expansion. In Buenos Aires, Francisco Tamburini remodelled the Casa Rosada in the late 1800s to become the offices of the president. This Beaux-Arts composition, with its central arch and side loggias, then became the standard for the institutions of government in the interior of Argentina: in Corrientes (a new jail by Juan Col, 1881–86 A.D.), in Paraná (by Bernardo Rigoli-Luis Sessarego, 1885 A.D.), in Catamarca (the churches by Luis Caravatti, 1880–90 A.D.), and in Posadas (by Col, 1883 A.D.).
Architects abandoned the strict Neoclassicism of the earlier epoch for a more eclectic and random use of Classical elements, centred on the use of cupolas and great semicircular “thermal” windows such as those in the Palace of Government (c. 1900) in Salvador (Bahia), Brazil. The most ambitious example of this type was the Palace of Congress (c. 1904) in Buenos Aires, by Victor Meano. The new Congress in Caracas (1873 A.D.), by Luciano Urdaneta, is also an eclectic Neoclassical composition centred on its elliptical cupola on the north wing. It features a large central courtyard with Corinthian columns made of cast iron manufactured in Philadelphia. In Chile the French engineer Gustave Eiffel used an elegant cast-iron structure for the Church of San Marcos (1875 A.D.) in Arica.
Perhaps the finest building of this period is the Colón Theatre in Buenos Aires (1905–08; restored 2006–10), by Tamburini. This theatre’s sober exterior belies an opulent interior—with noteworthy acoustics—that was closely modelled on Charles Garnier’s Paris Opéra. New theatres were built in every city. In Buenos Aires as many as 20 were built, among these the Opera (1872 A.D.), by Emilio Landois. In Montevideo the Cibils Theatre (1871 A.D.; demolished) and the San Felipe (1880 A.D.), both by Juan Alberto Capurro, are fine examples of Beaux-Arts theatres. Other important theatres include: in Chile, the Municipal Theatre of Santiago (1853–57 A.D.) by Brunet; in Brazil, the Santa Isabel Theatre (1850 A.D.) by Louis Léger Vauthier in Pernambuco, the Theatre of the Peace (1878 A.D.) by José Tibúrcio de Magalhäes in Belém do Pará, the Municipal Theatre (c. 1905–09) by Francisco de Oliveira Passos in Rio, and the extraordinary Amazonas Theatre (1896) by B.A. de Oliveira Braga in Manaus; in Lima, the Municipal Theatre (1909); in Quito, the National Sucre Theatre (1886 A.D.) by Francisco Schmidt; and in Caracas, perhaps one of the most interesting examples because of its curvilinear volume, the Guzmán Blanco Theatre (1879–81 A.D.; today the Municipal Theatre) by Esteban Ricard.
This period was again characterised by the direct influence of European architecture, created by immigrant architects or by national architects trained in Paris. The influence of French theorists such as Jacques-François Blondel, Marc-Antoine Laugier, Quatremère de Quincy, and Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand is evident in academic architecture of the region. Examples of this eclecticism in Caracas include the Neoclassical Church of Santa Teresa (c. 1876 A.D.) and the Neo-Gothic University of Caracas (1878 A.D.), both by Hurtado Manrique. It is notable that the best examples of these new institutions are buildings that one could find in any of the European capitals. They show little trace of the creative transformations prevalent in the architecture of the previous 300 years in Latin America.
THE REACTION AGAINST ACADEMIC ARCHITECTURE, C. 1900–29
The period of roughly 1900 to 1929 was characterised by the exhaustion of the eclecticism of the late Beaux-Arts and the need for new models that were not based on a combination of Classical elements. Examples of the Art Nouveau and Modernista (a variant of Modernism) architecture of Barcelona, including the influence of the eccentric work of Antoni Gaudí, began to appear in the larger cities of Latin America, and Art Deco eventually became a dominant style.